Seventeenth Amendment

“The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Senate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power. This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms, with the idea of a federal government”-Federalist 9, by Alexander Hamilton

A States’ Liberty Flag of Independence


50 State Legislatures Have the Power to Take Back Washingtonstep

Montana bill SJ-10, to repeal the 17th Amendment, in 2003 passed the Judiciary Committee 6-3 but was defeated in the full Senate.

Text of Proposed Montana Resolution and Amendment

Why should we repeal the 17th Amendment?

Learn why from State Senator Jerry O’Neil, author of the Montana bill

In 1791 the state legislatures ran the United States Senate, but the 17th Amendment passed in 1913, reversed the power of the states, removing their control over Washington and creating two separate and redundant Houses of the People..

With no guidance by the legislatures, Congress has a misdirected role, duplicating functions the Constitution had given to the states.   Gun regulation should be a federal issue whenever it involves  the movement of guns between states, sale of a gun to a non-resident, or when the separate state legislatures see need for a uniform law,.  A Senate not answerable to the state legislators will pass bills to please their constituents, duplicating House bills and negating more relevant laws passed by the separate states.

Erosion of  state power will continue until the states regain their former control of  the Senate

The 17th Amendment did more than increase the role of the federal government.  It fundamentally changed the Constitution because it ended  the states legislative role  in Washington.

The States’ Liberty Party will repeal the 17th Amendment  and reaffirm the perpetuity of the United States Constitution  and first several amendments.

 Repeal 17th!

by John MacMullin

 In the original design by the Framers of the U.S. Constitution, there was an effective check on Congress through the state legislatures’ power to appoint (and remove) U.S. Senators.  The 17th Amendment  eliminated the checks and balances available to the states over federal power or over Congress itself in any area.

Amplifying the Tenth Amendment

Law Review by John MacMullin,  Cited as “worth reading” by the National Law Journal

In Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority the Supreme Court recognized that the seventeenth amendment, which provides for the popular election of Senators, may have diminished the influence that state governments have over the federal political process and, thereby, the effectiveness of the states’ role in that process

The Founding Fathers Success Formula

By Friends For America

Friends For America– a non-profit Corp.–was founded by volunteers to bring about a rebirth of freedom by restoring the balance of powers between the state governments and national government, with a mission of educating state legislators of their responsibility to maintain states rights and sovereignty.


Publius and the Oracle

By Jim Hauser

He said that he was from the future and had come back in time to point out an error in the proposed constitution for the states.  I was just getting ready to point out to him that what he foresees as the future of this country could never happen according to his imaginary account. Aside from the checks in the Constitution there is the moral fiber of humanity that gets it’s sustenance from above. The people of this soon to be born nation will never allow such foolish things to happen.

United States Fiscal Issues

By John MacMullin

Thomas Jefferson once stated during the formation of the U.S. Government: “We might hope to see the finances of the Union as clear and intelligible as a merchant’s books, so that every member of [the] Union, should be able to comprehend them to investigate abuses, and consequently to control them.”

Internet Links…

US Constitution: Seventeenth Amendment

Amendment text and Findlaw annotations

Should it be Repealed?  by John Dean

John Dean, a FindLaw columnist, is a former Counsel to the President of the United States

The States’ Rights Question by Jeffery A. Tucker,

As John MacMullin has pointed out, the change imposed by the 17th amendment dealt a fatal blow to full representation by the states in shaping federal policy

Far-Reaching and Forgotten: The 17th Amendment

The Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, changed the method of selecting senators from election by state legislatures to popular election. This change was made during the height of the Progressive Era, a populist movement that sought increased suffrage, a bigger role for government, and other democratic reforms.

Amending the Constitution

The U.S. Constitution has changed over time, sometimes by formal amendment and other times by judicial interpretation, presidential and congressional action, and general custom and practice.

United States Senate

Official web site of the US Senate

Montana Bill for Repealing 17th Amendment

A draft bill sponsored by Montana State Senator Jerry O’Neill is being introduced into Montana Legislature early next week urging Congress to repeal the Seventeenth Amendment

New Hampshire Resolution to Restore the 10th Amendment

That New Hampshire and the sovereign people of this state from this day forward shall not be subject to any law, rule, resolution, code, or executive order that exceeds the scope of the several parts of the constitutions of either New Hampshire or of the subordinate United States of America.


California Bear Flag Revolt

California Bear Flag

The California Bear Flag was first raised in Sonoma, California in 1846 by rebellious white settlers, who declared independence for California, in what came to be known as the Bear Flag revolt. The flag was created by a nephew of Abraham Lincoln, and contained a large “lone star”, a caricature of a California grizzly bear, and the words “CALIFORNIA REPUBLIC”. The revolt was short-lived. Within months, the United States was at war with Mexico and the bear flag was replaced by the United States flag. A refined version of the flag, with a smaller star and finer rendition of the bear is now the official state flag of California.

“The Bear Flag is the State Flag of California. As viewed with the hoist end of the flag to the left of the observer there appears in the upper left-hand corner of a white field a five-pointed red star with one point vertically upward and in the middle of the white field a brown grizzly bear walking toward the left with all four paws on the green grass plot, with head and eye turned slightly toward the observer, a red stripe forms the length of the flag at the bottom and between the grass plot and red stripe appear the words CALIFORNIA REPUBLIC.” –Official California Record

Rendering and photograph of the first bear flag. The original flag was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.

rendering of first bear flag

Photograph of first bear flag“… the colors on the flag are to be substantially the same as these color references; White-of the white field and the bear’s eye and on the bear’s claws is White . Red-of the red stripe, the star, and the bear’s tongue is Old Glory, [Pantone 200]. Green-of the grass plot is Irish Green, [Pantone 348]. Brown–of the bear is Maple Sugar, [Pantone 729C]. Dark Brown– of the bear outline, paws, shading, fur undulations, iris of the eye, the 12 grass tufts in the grass plot and the setters is Seal, [Pantone 462C].”

Various different versions of the bear flag were created and used by the rebels. Known flags are depicted below. (Images from State of California Military Dept)

Bear Flag

Repeal Seventeenth Amendment

Repeal Seventeenth Amendment

By John MacMullin

With respect to states’ rights, it should be readily apparent to all that state governments cannot exert any meaningful influence or control over the federal government, judiciary, or any other federal institution.

Let us state the problem precisely. At the present time, there are no checks and balances available to the states over federal power or over Congress itself in any area. However, in the history of our country, it was not always this way. In the original design by the Framers of the U.S. Constitution, there was an effective check on Congress through the state legislatures’ power to appoint (and remove) U.S. Senators. As such, the core of the problem with state’s rights issues lies in the passage of the 17th Amendment which abrogated the state legislatures’ right to appoint U.S. Senators in favor of popular election of those officials. This amendment created a fundamental structural problem which, irrespective of the political party in office, or the laws in effect at any one time, will result in excessive federal control in every area. It also results in a failure in the federalist structure, federal deficit spending, inappropriate federal mandates, and the evaporation of state influence over national policy.

The reason for the passage of the 17th Amendment should be stated. The 17th Amendment was passed because of a procedural problem in the original concept and not because of a need to alter the balance of power. The procedural problem consisted of frequent deadlocks when the state legislatures were trying to select a senator. When deadlocked, a state would go without representation in the Senate. For instance, in the very first Congress, the State of New York went without representation in the Senate for three months. Additionally, numerous other problems resulted from the efforts to resolve individual deadlocks. The problem of deadlocked legislatures continued unabated from 1787 until 1913. The seventeenth amendment, calling for popular election of senators, fixed the procedural problems, but also inappropriately and unintentionally altered the balance of power. Instead, the 17th Amendment should have fixed the procedural problems and left the balance of power between the states and the federal government intact.

For more information, I respectfully refer you to a law review article that I wrote, Amplifying the Tenth Amendment, 31 ARIZ. L. REV. 915 (1989). This article was cited as “worth reading” by the National Law Journal, in its March 5, 1990, publication. Additionally, I direct you to two books written by George Haynes titled “The Senate of the United States” published in 1938, and “The Election of Senators” published in 1906. I believe that you will find that these references are well worth reading.

In my opinion, the 17th Amendment should be repealed. This would reinstate the states’ linkage to the federal political process and would, thereby, have the effect of elevating the present status of the state legislatures from that of lobbyists, to that of a partner in the federal political process. The state legislatures would then have the ability to decentralize power when appropriate. It would give state legislatures direct influence over the selection of federal judges and the jurisdiction of the federal judiciary and much greater ability to modify federal court orders. This structure would allow the flow of power between the states and the federal government to ebb and flow as the needs of our federal republic change. The existing relationship, combined with the effect of the Supremacy Clause, is guaranteed to concentrate power into the hands of the federal government with little or no hope of return.

With that, the state governments should be focusing an effort to repeal the 17th Amendment, not on passing legislation or engaging in irrelevant activities, that are more than likely useless over the long term and probably also over the short.


The constitutional amendment proposed would reinstate the states’ linkage to the federal political process and would, thereby, have the effect of elevating the status of the state governments from that of lobbyists, to that of a partner in the federal political process.  Figure A above portrays the existing relationship between the states and the federal government.  This relationship, combined with the effect of the Supremacy Clause, is guaranteed to concentrate power into the hands of the federal government with little hope of return. 

With the passage of the amendment, the state legislatures would have the ability to decentralize power when appropriate.  After passage, it would primarily be the state legislatures interacting with their appointed senators, and not with the other branches of the federal government, that would establish the “line” between the federal and state governments.  Figure B shows the effect of the passage of the proposed amendment on the relationship between the governments.  This structure allows the flow of power between the states and the federal government to ebb and flow as the needs of our federal republic change.  This structure also exemplifies the original concept of the Framers of the Constitution.

Illustrations by John MacMullin
John MacMullin has a private law practice in Phoenix, Arizona. and a Juris Doctorate degree from the University of Arizona College of Law.  His article, Amplifying the Tenth Amendment, 31 Ariz. L. Rev. 915 (1989) was cited as “worth reading” by the National Law Journal.

More on 17th Amendment from States’ Liberty party

John MacMullin contributed this article to the States’ Liberty Party

Why Should We Repeal the 17th Amendment?

Q. Why should we repeal the 17th Amendment and forfeit our right to vote for U.S. senators?

A . How many times have you had your U.S. Senator approach you and discuss impending legislation with you?  Even though you voted for them, they probably did not contact you once. But how many times do you suppose they contacted Enron about impending legislation. Enron and other corporations financed their campaigns, to the tune of millions of dollars, to get you to vote these senators into office. You can safely bet that your U.S. Senators discuss impending legislation with these corporations on a routine basis.

How often do U.S. Senators discuss federal affairs with your state legislator? I am still looking for a state legislator who has been contacted by their U.S. Senator regarding federal affairs.

Prior to the enactment of the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution the U.S. Senators discussed federal affairs with their state legislators on a regular basis. At THAT time U.S. Senators did not have to raise millions of dollars to run for office. They were not beholden to the large corporations.

There is no way our U.S. Senators are going to personally discuss federal affairs with, and handle the input from, 900,000 people. The only choice we have before us is to have them discuss our federal affairs with the State Legislatures as opposed to the large corporations. As originally included in the U.S. Constitution, the people of the states will continue to enjoy the right to vote for their U.S. Representatives.

I am including the final version of my presentation which I gave today before the Montana Senate Judiciary Committee.



Prior to the adoption of the 17th Amendment to the United States
Constitution, the United States Senators were elected by the State
Legislatures. According to the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 3, Clause 1:

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

At the time the Constitution was written, the U.S. Representatives were to represent the people and were to be elected by popular vote. The U.S. Senators were to represent the States and were to be elected by the State Legislatures.

The 17th Amendment changed the United States Constitution and took away the States representation in our United States government. It states:

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications required for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Since Representatives in the House are elected by the general population of a state, they represent the individual citizens of the state. People have different anxieties and desires as individuals than they do collectively as a state. In fact, most individual citizens are not even aware of what the state must do to protect its people and their rights.


There are 2 main reasons to repeal the 17th Amendment. These reasons are: Campaign Finance Reform and to protect States’ Rights.


According to Molly Ivins, a columnist for the Fort Worth Star Telegram:

The sad state of the union is that money talks and public policy is sold to the highest bidder. Less than one-tenth of 1 percent of the U.S. population gave 83 percent of all campaign contributions in the 2002  elections. Those who give money in political contributions get back billions in tax breaks, subsidies and the right to exploit public land at ridiculously low prices. This system in turn costs ordinary Americans billions of dollars, not to mention the costs to health, safety and the environment, and the cost of not having enough money for good schools. For example, the top corporations that paid zero taxes from 1996 to 1998 included AT&T, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chase Manhattan, Enron, Exxon Mobil, General Electric, Microsoft, Pfizer and Phillip Morris. They gave $150.1 million to campaigns from 1991 to 2001. Public Campaign reports they got $55 billion in tax breaks from 96 to 98 alone, perennial legislation  to gut the alternative minimum tax and billions in rebates to select  corporations.

Right here in Montana, in the race for Senate between incumbent Max Baucus and challenger Mike Taylor, millions of dollars were spent. Max Baucus raised and spent $6.7 million and Mike Taylor raised and spent 1.8 million. Much of this money came from out of state. Some of the contributions came from: American International Group, Microsoft Corporation, General Electric, Goldman Sachs, Bank of America, JP Morgan, Chase & Co., Merck & Company, AOL Time Warner, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, National Pro-Life Alliance, National Rifle Association and Retamco Oil and Gas.

With the original Constitutional provisions before the 17th Amendment, the U.S. Senate was to be a check on Congress to prevent them from dipping into the National treasury to buy votes. But since the passage of the 17th Amendment, rather than being appointed by the State Legislatures, they too must run expensive election campaigns and, instead of checking the problem, they are now part of the problem.


James Madison thought that the States should be active participants in the Federal Government. He said:

Whenever power may be necessary for the national government, a certain portion must be necessarily left with the states, it is impossible for one power to pervade the extreme parts of the United States so as to  carry equal justice to them. The state legislatures also ought to have some means of defending themselves against the encroachments of the national government. In every other department we have studiously endeavored to provide for its self-defense. Shall we leave the states alone un-provided with the means for this purpose? And what better means can be provided than by giving them some share in, or rather make them a constituent part of, the national government?

Since the enactment of the 17th Amendment, the states have been reduced from an equal l partner with the Federal Government to a common lobbyist, which has resulted with the loss of State Sovereignty, State Rights and a host of Federal mandates some funded and some unfunded. These mandated include the No Child Left Behind Act with its system of compulsory tests.

The other day I heard Eric Feaver, the lobbyist for MEA/MFT, state that he couldn’t understand how any U.S. Senator representing Montana could vote to eviscerate the Montana Constitution. He was talking about the act of our U.S. Senators passing the No Child Left Behind Act. This act might sit well with that portion of the public who are not involved in > politics. But if we, as members of the Montana Legislature, had any say in the matter, we would have insisted it did not do harm to the Montana Constitution or to our state government.

It was recently brought to my attention that Governor Martz is proposing hiring a lobbyist in Washington D.C. in order to protect our state’s interests. Prior to the adoption of the 17th Amendment this would have been unnecessary.

If the responsibility of electing our U.S. Senators was returned to the State Legislatures, the cost of campaigns would be much lower. It obviously costs less to influence 150 Montana Legislators than it costs to influence the voters in a state of over 900,000 people.  Rather than paying back the Legislatures in tax breaks, subsidies and  lands to be exploited, the Federal Government would consider the will of the various state governments when making its laws. We would not have mandatory student testing being imposed upon us by the federal government.


There were 2 main reasons the 17th Amendment was adopted in 1913.

One was the deadlock of State Legislatures when electing U.S. Senators.  According to the Montana Historical Society Legislative Minute for January 15:

On this day in Montana legislative history January 15, 1890 the state’s First Legislative Assembly already had been deadlocked for 54 days and there was no hope in sight of breaking the stalemate. In the House, 25 Republicans faced 25 Democrats. Here, however, a crucial 5 seats were disputed because of apparent voting irregularities in Silver Bow County’s Precinct 34, at Homestake Tunnel above Butte.  Both parties claimed the 5 swing seats and, thus, control of the House. Control was especially important because, prior to 1912, Montana legislators elected the state’s U.S. Senators. So, to protect their 5 disputed seats, each party met in separate chambers for the duration of the 90 day session. In effect, two houses of representatives existed each one calling the other the rump house.
Regarding the most crucial question, Republican legislators elected two of their own as U.S. Senators Wilber Fisk Sanders and Thomas C. Power.And Democrats sent two of their own William A. Clark and Martin Maginnis to Washington. Since Republicans controlled Congress, Sanders and Power became Montana’s first U.S. Senators.

The other was the corruption of the State Legislators. In Montana W.A. Clark bribed our state legislators in order to become a U.S. Senator.

In January 1889 it was reported that W.A. Clark;s son promised: We will send the old man to the Senate or the poorhouse. On January 10, 1889 a joint legislative committee to investigate reports of bribery presented sworn testimony to the legislature. The key testimony was that of State Senator Fred Whiteside of Flathead County. Whiteside testified that Clark’s henchmen, led by attorney John B. Wellcome, had given him thirty thousand dollars to purchase his vote and the votes of several other legislators. He said that his exposure of Clark’s bribe had brought threats to his life, but if this be the last act of my life, it is well worth the price to the people of this state.

Our protection from corrupt State Legislatures are: Term limits; Campaign disclosure statements; Open Caucuses; and We have highly visible public information.

Our protection from dead-locked State Legislatures is the provision that if a State Legislature does not fill a vacancy or elect a U.S. Senator within 30 days, the Governor shall appoint the U.S. Senator.

I recommend that committee members give extra careful consideration to this proposal. This vote has historic and fundamental ramifications that go back to our founding fathers. We should not be impeded from following the patriotism and wisdom of our Constitution’s framers.

Regarding opponents of the measure as Shakespeare said, they are thinking to precisely on the event and are 1 part wise, but 3 parts fearful.

Reprinted with permission from Montana State Senator Jerry O’Neil

Concealed Carry in the United States


Let’s face it, guns are not going anywhere here in the United States and while some states support open carry, most of the United States require Concealed Carry.

Carrying a firearm is part of our heritage here in the United States and yet this right is trampled on everyday.

What is Concealed Carryconcealed carry

Concealed Carry means that you must keep your firearm concealed at all times, but here’s the kicker. Even many states that are open carry, will arrest you for carrying in the open. The charge will not be carrying in the open however, it will be breach of peace.

Of course, this charge will be thrown out because you weren’t breaking any laws, but in the meantime, you are forced to spend a lot of money on a lawyer and endure the inconvenience of being wrongfully accused.

Welcome to your left wing state!

The Right to Bear Arms

US Concealed Carry

My wife and four kids are the reason I carry.

The Constitution of the United States clearly emulates that you have the right to bear arms and that right shall not be infringed upon and yet it is infringed upon everyday.

You are forced to get permits and undergo fingerprinting as well as sit through training that you could teach better than the kid whose teaching it.

I understand that we are a nation of laws, but the rights guaranteed under the Constitution should take precedent and they don’t.

This is one instance where I don’t agree with the right of states to institute their own laws that walk all over the rights of people guaranteed under the constitution.

There is a popular misconception that the American people don’t want their gun rights taken away because they want to be able to hunt, or to defend themselves against intruders, when the fact of the matter is, our right to bear arms is so that we can defend ourselves against a tyrannical government. And yet our states are busy outlawing semi automatic and military style firearms, while a firearm with the best buffer springs for a 300 blackout is exactly what  we are going to need to defend ourselves.


I think not!

What Can You Do?

As an American, there are many things that you can do to ensure your right to bear arms.NRA

  • Join the NRA – Never has there been an organization as passionate as the NRA is about kepping and maintaining our right to bear arms. You should support them.
  • Vote for politicians that share your view – Yes, there are politicians out there that share your views. Oftentimes they are far outweighed by soccer moms and left wing radicals, but stick to your guns. No pun intended
  • Get your Concealed Carry Permit – If you don’t already have it, get your concealed carry permit in your state and learn to carry on a daily basis.
  • Practice Safe Gun Ownership – Nothing fuels the anti gun faction more than preventable accidents by so called safe gun owners. Take your responsibility seriously and guarantee the safety of your firearm.

Guns aren’t going anywhere, and the sooner that you get on the bandwagon and support everyone’s right to carry, the better we will be as a nation.

Remember, it is your right!

Our Hunting Heritage in The United States

Our hunting heritage in the United States continues to move toward extinction as more and more young people are opting to not participate in our once popular past time.

Gone are the days of all of the men from the extended family gathering at deer camp to swap stories and pass on the rules and love of the outdoors.

Old Deer Camp photo

Photo Courtesy of Wikipedia


Back then you carried only a rifle, a knife, the clothes on your back and the knowledge in your head, and if you were unsuccessful, your family did not eat meat over the winter!

It is very different today, where hunters carry all of the latest gadgets and gizmos. Today hunters have to have the best hunting binoculars and the best rangefinders and waterproof boots and scent removers and hand warmers!

While you would think that all of these new gadgets would make deer hunters more successful, the truth is that there is no substitute for the knowledge and woodsmanship that was passed down from generation to generation and now is in danger of being lost.

What Can You Do To Preserve Our Hunting Heritage?

The only way that our hunting heritage is going to survive in the United States is if there is a grass roots effort to involve young people in our traditions and pass on our love and respect for the outdoors and the animals we pursue for both food and sport.

  1. Practice what you preach – As an adult that children look up to, you need to let them see you hunting and let them see your love and admiration of the animals that you pursue. Be sure to always obey the game laws and teach the children a healthy respect for the outdoors.
  2. Involve the family in the outdoors – There are many opportunities to involve the family in the outdoors besides hunting that will help to contribute to a love of the outdoors that will spill over into hunting. You can take the family fishing, or hiking or take them with you to look for shed deer antlers. Involve them any way that you can.
  3. Take a kid hunting – This is absolutely imperative if we are going to save our hunting heritage in the United States. We can not continue to lose hunters at the rate that we currently are and not expect to lose our rights and heritage. These can be some of the most satisfying times in a father and child’s life and can lead to memories that will be cherished forever. If you do not hunt yourself, perhaps you have a family member or a friend that can take your child hunting. Contact your local fish and game club and seek out a mentor that can help your child to find that love of the outdoors resting deep inside their soul.


Our hunting heritage in the United States is in trouble and the only way that we are going to save it is going to be with a concerted grass roots effort to get more young people involved in the outdoors.

It’s high time we get our children to put down the electronics and get back to the soul soothing accomplishments of being an outdoorsman and hunter.

Our hunting heritage will die without it.